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OSHA’s 'Top 10' most-cited violations

OSHA's Top 10 for 2018

Penalty Box

This list of OSHA’s highest proposed monetary penalties in fiscal year 2018 comprises those stemming from a single incident or related incidents in which one or more employers are alleged to have failed to adhere to safe work practices. These failures put workers at risk – in some cases fatally. The following information is gathered from OSHA enforcement press releases issued by federal OSHA between Oct. 1, 2017, and Sept. 30, 2018.

(Note: Dollar amounts may be reduced as part of a settlement agreement or litigation.)


Employer: Didion Milling
Location: Cambria, WI (OSHA Region 5)
Business type: Grain milling facility
Inspection trigger: Explosion that resulted in five worker fatalities and 12 injuries, including an amputation Event: Inspectors determined that the explosion likely was the result of the company neglecting to address the leakage and accumulation of combustible grain dust in the facility, as well as insufficient maintenance of equipment to control ignition sources. Among the workers injured was a 21-year-old who was crushed by a railcar, necessitating a double leg amputation.
Major citations: In total, Didion Milling was cited for 14 willful violations – including eight egregious instance-by-instance willful violations – and five serious violations. The willful violations stemmed from failure to shut down ignition sources, prevent static electricity discharge, provide adequate personal protective equipment to employees, correct malfunctioning dust collection systems, maintain equipment safety controls and have an emergency alarm system. The egregious citations were for failure to perform required maintenance on operating equipment and establish a housekeeping program to control dust accumulations. The serious violations involved fire and explosion hazards, as well as a lack of employee training. OSHA placed the company in its Severe Violator Enforcement Program.

“Didion Milling could have prevented this tragedy if it had addressed hazards that are well-known in this industry. Instead, their disregard for the law led to an explosion that claimed the lives of workers, and heartbreak for their families and the community.” – Ken Nishiyama Atha, OSHA regional administrator in Chicago


Employers: First Marine LLC; Thermal Control and Fabrication Inc.; Hutco Inc.; Day Help LLC (operating as Wise Staffing Group); and Joe Rupcke
Location: Calvert City, KY (OSHA Region 4)
Business types: Ship repair contractor, insulation contractor, blasting and painting contractor, staffing agencies Inspection trigger: Explosion that resulted in three worker deaths and two critical injuries
Event: OSHA determined that an explosion occurred aboard a tugboat while employees performed cutting and welding operations in an atmosphere in which flammable gases were present.
Major citations: Altogether, First Marine was cited for 30 serious and three willful violations, one other-than-serious violation and one repeat violation over two inspections. Thermal Control and Fabrication and Hutco each were cited for 15 serious violations, with Thermal Control and Fabrication cited over two inspections. OSHA also cited Rupcke for 17 serious and one other-than-serious violation, and cited Day Help for one serious violation. Violations were for failure to test confined spaces before entry, train workers on confined space entry operations and label chemical containers; exposing employees to asphyxiation, fire, explosion, chemical, trip and drowning hazards; and allowing hot work/welding operations without testing for an explosive atmosphere.

“This tragedy could have been prevented if the employers had followed proper confined space procedures and implemented appropriate safety measures.” – Kurt Petermeyer, OSHA regional administrator in Atlanta


Employer: HB Fuller Co. (operating as Adhesive Systems Inc.)
Location: Frankfort, IL (OSHA Region 5)
Business type: Adhesives manufacturer
Inspection trigger: Planned inspection
Event: Inspectors reported witnessing numerous health and safety violations, including failure to provide employees with respirator fit tests and respirators appropriate for hazardous atmospheres, failure to require bonding and grounding when transferring flammable liquids, failure to ensure approval of electrical equipment used in hazardous atmospheres, and failure to conduct an assessment of personal protective equipment.
Major citations: HB Fuller was cited for 18 serious, willful, repeat and other-than-
serious violations across two inspections.

“This employer failed to provide a safe and healthful workplace. The company needlessly exposed workers to hazards by failing to provide necessary training or conduct a required workplace hazard assessment.” – Kathy Webb, OSHA office director in Chicago


Employer: Nox US LLC
Location: Fostoria, OH (OSHA Region 5)
Business type: Luxury vinyl tile manufacturer
Inspection trigger: Worker injuries

Event: Responding to separate employee injury reports in less than two weeks, OSHA inspectors found that one worker had his hand crushed in a tile machine, while another had parts of two fingers amputated while operating a recycle material system. OSHA concluded that Nox US had failed to use adequate lockout/tagout procedures to prevent unintentional machine movement and had not trained employees. Further, the company had exposed workers to fall hazards.
Major citations: Nox US was cited for five willful and two serious violations over two inspections. OSHA placed the company in its Severe Violator Enforcement Program.


“When dangerous machines are not properly guarded or de-energized, employees face an increased risk of serious injuries. Employers must monitor their facilities continuously to ensure workplace safety and health procedures are adequate and effective.” – Kim Nelson, OSHA area director in Toledo, OH


Employer: Gavilon Grain LLC
Location: Wichita, KS (OSHA Region 7)
Business type: Grain bin operator
Inspection trigger: Worker fatalities
Event: OSHA determined that a lack of worker lifelines, fall protection, lockout equipment and rescue equipment contributed to two workers being fatally engulfed in a soybean storage bin. Additionally, the company allowed workers to enter a bin containing bridged or hung-up grain.
Major citations: Gavilon Grain was cited for 12 serious, willful and repeat violations across two inspections. OSHA placed the company in its Severe Violator Enforcement Program.

“Moving grain acts like quicksand and can bury a worker in seconds. This tragedy could have been prevented if the employer had provided workers with proper safety equipment and followed required safety procedures to protect workers from grain bin hazards.” – Kim Stille, OSHA regional administrator in Kansas City, MO


Employer: Trade Fair Supermarkets
Location: Queens, NY (OSHA Region 2)
Business type: Supermarket
Inspection trigger: Planned inspection
Event: While inspecting three supermarket locations around New York City, OSHA representatives found blocked exit routes, blades without safety guards and a lack of sufficient eyewash stations to mitigate exposure to corrosive substances. The company also failed to provide workers with training and Safety Data Sheets on exposure to hazardous occupational chemicals.
Major citations: Trade Fair Supermarkets was cited for 14 repeat, serious and other-than-serious violations. OSHA found similar violations at the company in 2013.

“The recurrence and pattern of these violations is troubling. These grocery stores must focus on safety and make it a priority.” – Kay Gee, OSHA area director in Manhattan


Employer: Kamphuis Pipeline Co.
Location: Kidder County, ND (OSHA Region 8)
Business type: Excavation contractor
Inspection trigger: Planned inspection
Event: OSHA uncovered various violations while investigating a water project site, including employee exposure to trench cave-ins and other trenching and excavation hazards during installation of water metering pits and lines. The agency also found that Kamphuis Pipeline failed to protect employees from struck-by hazards, place excavated soil piles at the proper distance away from trench edges or use appropriate trenching protective systems.
Major citations: In two inspections, Kamphuis Pipeline was cited for 16 serious, willful and other-than-serious violations.

“Trenching and excavation are among the most hazardous construction operations, and employers have an obligation to follow safety requirements designed to protect their workers. This employer’s failure to install protective systems put workers at risk of serious injuries from a trench collapse.” – Eric Brooks, OSHA area director in Bismarck, ND


Employer: Douglas Stephen Plastics Inc.
Location: Paterson, NJ (OSHA Region 2)
Business type: Plastics manufacturer
Inspection trigger: Complaint
Event: An inspection stemming from a complaint involving hazardous work conditions and blocked emergency exits also found that the company had exposed workers to excessive noise levels while not administering a hearing conservation program. Further, Douglas Stephens Plastics exposed workers to amputations, electric shock and burns by allowing employees to use machines with improper guarding while failing to control hazardous energy and train operators of powered industrial trucks.
Major citations: Douglas Stephens Plastics was cited for 19 serious, willful and other-than-serious violations over two inspections.


Employer: Farmers Cooperative – Dorchester
Location: Raymond, NE (OSHA Region 7)
Business type: Grain handling cooperative
Inspection trigger: Response to entrapment
Event: A worker entered a grain bin to clear clumps of soybeans with the machine’s auger in operation. During the course of the work, as the beans cleared and the grain shifted, the employee was knocked off his feet. The beans dropped to the bottom of the bin and filled it enough to partially entrap the worker, engulfing him up to his chest.
Major citations: The cooperative was cited for four serious, two willful and one repeat violation. OSHA also placed the company in its Severe Violator Enforcement Program.

“It is well-known throughout the industry that entering a bin is extremely dangerous, especially while the auger is operating. Entering a storage bin should always be avoided – if at all possible.” – Kim Stille, OSHA regional administrator in Kansas City, MO


Employer: Vigor Marine Inc.
Location: Portland, OR (OSHA Region 10)
Business type: Shipbuilder
Inspection trigger: Complaint
Event: Upon investigating a complaint about occupational hazards during hot work in the engine room of a passenger ferry, OSHA inspectors determined that employees were allowed to work on energized circuit boxes. The agency also found that Vigor Marine had failed to conduct fit testing and medical evaluations before providing respirators, and further neglected to enact an effective hearing conservation program or ensure employees wore seat belts when operating powered industrial trucks.
Major citations: Vigor Marine was cited for 16 willful and serious violations.

“This employer’s failure to monitor work areas for the presence of hazards, and implement effective controls is putting their employees at risk for serious injuries.” – Cecil Tipton, OSHA area director in Seattle

About the Severe Violator Enforcement Program

OSHA’s Severe Violator Enforcement Program “concentrates resources on inspecting employers who have demonstrated indifference to their OSH Act obligations by willful, repeated, or failure-to-abate violations.” For a closer look at the program, go to sh-m.ag/2Cwob4f.




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